➳ [Leering] ➶ The Clash Of Civilizations: And The Remaking Of World Order Por Samuel P Huntington ➩ –

InThe Esteemed Journal FOREIGN AFFAIRS Published An Article Entitled The Clash Of Civilizations By Samuel P Huntington According To The Journal S Editors It Went On To Generate Discussion Than Anything They Had Published Since The Second World War In The Article, Huntington Posed The Question Whether Conflicts Between Civilizations Would Dominate The Future Of World Politics In The Book, He Gives The Answer, Showing Not Only How Clashes Between Civilizations Are The Greatest Threat To World Peace But Also How An International Order Based On Civilizations Is The Best Safeguard Against War Since September , His Thesis Has Seemed Even Prescient And Acute THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS AND THE REMAKING OF WORLD ORDER Is Now Recognised As A Classic Study Of International Relations In An Increasingly Uncertain World

5 thoughts on “The Clash Of Civilizations: And The Remaking Of World Order

  1. says:

    In 2018, some of the ideas in this book will without a doubt be controversial than ever, given that frank acknowledgements of problems caused by cultural differences has become taboo in some forums The book is a greatly expanded and elaborated version of the author s 1993 Foreign Affairs article of the same title which can be accessed at the Foreign Affairs website via paywall The central themes of the book are that culture and cultural identities what he calls civilization identities shape the patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict in the post Cold War world that clashes between these are the greatest threat to world peace and that an international order based on civilizations is the surest safeguard against world war In the author s own words In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture is false, immoral, and dangerous The common Western assumption that cultural diversity is a historical curiosity being rapidly eroded by the growth of a common, Western oriented, Anglophone world culture, shaping our basic valuesis simply not true Professor Huntington s model divides the world into nine civilizations, a model he acknowledges is not perfect, but better explains the world s international difficulties than the most prevalent alternative models 1 One World Euphoria and Harmony 2 Two Worlds Us and Them 3 184 States, More or Less and 4 Sheer Chaos He suggests that the civilizational aspects of the world s divisions were briefly thrown into the shade by the bipolar nature of the Cold War and the sometimes forced choosing of sides it required This was written around 25 years ago, not too long after the end of the Cold War it is interesting to see how accurately his world model explains the state of the world and the way in which certain choices especially in the West seem to be trending toward his predicted end states.While I believe that Huntington largely avoids unfounded value judgements, some of his observations will certainly be considered controversial by many who seem to be in the ascendant these days 2018 in the Western political climate One of these is his observation, supported by data, that fault line conflicts those occurring across civilizational boundaries are vastly prevalent across the Muslim non Muslim divide than they are across any other world cultural boundary remembering he considers that there are NINE cultures in the world He offers some suggestive data supporting this observation, and offers some possible explanations for it Despite some hostile reviews I read, it is important to note that Huntington himself does not push any particular conclusions these are offered as POSSIBLE explanations.A second observation is the undesirability and absurdity of the multicultural state, an assertion that seems to go directly against current Western trends being propelled by Western liberal elites From p305 Historically American national identity has been defined culturally by the heritage of Western civilization, and politically by the principles of the American Creed on which Americans overwhelmingly agree liberty, democracy, individualism, equality before the law, constitutionalism, private property In the late 20th century, both components have come under concentrated and sustained onslaught from a small but influential number of intellectuals and publicists In the name of multiculturalism they have attacked the identification of the US with Western civilization, denied the existence of a common American culture, and promoted racial, ethnic, and other sub national cultural identities and groupings They have denounced the systematic bias toward European culture and its derivatives in education and the dominance of the European American monocultural perspective These people are very often ethnocentric separatists who see little in the Western heritage other than Western crimes Their mood is one of divesting Americans of the sinful European inheritance and seeking redemptive infusions from non Western cultures He quotes Theodore Roosevelt p306 The one absolutely certain way of bringing this nation to ruin, of preventing all possibility of its continuing as a nation at all, would be to permit it to become a tangle of squabbling nationalities He then observes that in the 1990s, the leaders of the US have not only permitted this but assiduously promoted the diversity rather than the unity of the people they govern Further p307 The clash between the multiculturalists and the defenders of Western civilization and the American Creed is the real clash within the American segment of Western civilizationthe futures of the US and of the West depend upon Americans reaffirming their commitment to Western civilization Domestically this means rejecting the divisive siren calls of multiculturalism Internationally it means rejecting the elusive and illusory calls to identify the US with Asia Important to note is that Huntington does not reject the other world cultures he describes His two simple assertions are that 1 Western values are not universal and 2 There can be no such thing as a successful multicultural civilization Any state that attempts this becomes what he describes as a cleft state, riven with internal conflict Huntington does readily acknowledge the utility of immigration p304 Immigration is a potential source of invigoration for the West, provided that 1 Priority is given to able, qualified, energetic people with the talents and expertise needed by the host country 2 The new migrants and their children are assimilated into the host culture Unfortunately, neither of these is happening in the West, especially in Europe.Huntington concludes with a recipe for peace in a multicivilizational world, containing three rules p316 1 Abstention rule In the coming erathe avoidance of major intercivilizational wars requires core states to refrain from intervening in conflicts in other civilizations 2 Joint mediation rule Core states negotiate with each other to contain or to halt fault line wars between states or groups from their civilizations 3 Commonalities rule Peoples in all civilizations should search for and attempt to expand the values, institutions, and practices they have in common with peoples of other civilizations This is NOT multiculturalism as practiced today Some interesting observations and speculations 1 p53 54 The great political ideologies of the 20th century are all products of Western civilization No non Western civilization has generated a significant political ideology The West, however, has never generated a major religion these are all products of non Western civilizations, and in most cases predate it As the world moves out of its Western phase, religious and cultural means of identification and commitment are replacing ideologies Separation of religion and politics will be increasingly replaced by intrusion of religion into international affairs 2 p78 Modernization without Westernization is quite possible and has been done Japan was one of the best early examples The challenges of modernizing pale beside those of replacing an indigenous culture with a Western one The world is becoming modern and less Western.3 p90 The text states that military spending has drastically declined in the West and in Russia since the end of the Cold War This is clearly no longer true in the US.4 p94 Adoption of Western style democracy by non Western societies is a paradox, as it gives power to nativist and anti Western political movements Democratization is inherently a parochializing and not a cosmopolitanizing influence Politicians in non Western societies do not win elections by demonstrating how Western they are 5 p112 The core elements in most revolutionary movements are students and intellectuals He further demonstrates how peaks in certain civil disturbances worldwide correlate with peaks in the 15 24 year old age groups in those places.6 Torn countries are those belonging to one civilization, but trying to join another This process always seems to fail Turkey is an excellent example, ultimately rejected by Europe It is interesting that EU reluctance to embrace Turkey at the time was due to fears of opening its borders to unrestricted immigration from a Muslim nation of 60 million EU at least the governing elites policy on embracing immigration seems to have changed The immigration aspect is discussed further starting on p200.7 An interesting factoid p203 In 1994, the Clinton Administration, reversing its earlier stance, moved to toughen immigration controls, tighten rules governing political asylum, expand the INS, strengthen the Border Patrol, and construct physical barriers along the Mexican boundary 8 p166 There is interesting discussion about the cleft nature of Ukraine, and its ethnic distribution, predictive of a split 25 years ago.As a final note, I have to wonder why, with so much text devoted to discussion of the Islamic non Islamic civilizational problem, the author is almost completely silent on Israel, and never even mentions which civilization he would assign it to His post 1990 map shading shows it as Islamic, despite his meticulous shading of other very small areas such as Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the Falkland Islands.

  2. says:

    Must read to understand how the world works now A little too long winded The original article by the other in Foreign Affairs is also available on , is a concise read and covers all the main points equally memorably to this book.

  3. says:

    The Clash of Civilizations became a key book in the discussion of future American Foreign Policy for all the right reasons Huntington s argument is well constructed and his predictions proved very prescient Huntington could have coordinated with a psychologist or socialogist to right a second book discussing identity theory to bolster his argument but his work stands on its own as work of political science I found his discussion of the Bosnian War interesting, as the war happened while I was still a child He predicted the current crisis in Ukraine and described Russia s strategy with remarkable clarity In his work, Huntington hypothesizes that the relative distribution of power and source of identity after the Cold War will spread to the 9 centers of civilization he describes in his book The resulting shift will make the next century one of fault line wars between the civilization.

  4. says:

    Is religion an essential ingredient of civilization Is susceptibility to religion built into human DNA Is susceptibility to religion by the majority essentially the willingness to except leader ship Is willingness to except leader ship an essential survival dominance characteristic of humanity Is a multicultural civilization inherently weak Can a collection of monocultural civilizations exist in peace and harmony Will the development of enhanced mutual Tolerance be essential to the survival of a collection of Increasingly technically advanced civilizations

  5. says:

    Samuel P Huntington s 1996 The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order was the bestselling book version of a controversial Foreign Affairs article, a big picture look at the world which dared to imagine that a bi polar competition between communism and democracy capitalism was about to be replaced by a multi polar world of competing civilizations.Huntington s book was thought provoking and controversial It denied the End of History thesis popular at the time It refused to conflate modernization with westernization or democracy It predicted that civilizations would replace ideologies as a basis of national and regional identity and as a source of international conflict, an affront to those expecting the imminent demise of the nation state.From the perspective of 2010, Huntington did about as well as most predictors of new and different international orders His concept of civilizations as an international organizing principle was imprecise, and some of his examples haven t held up The nature of the current multi polar world is driven by a number of causes and effects, of which civilization may be only one On the other, Huntington predicted the relative decline of the West, pointed out the hazards to the nation state of unassimilated immigration, and identified some fault lines of competition and conflict around China and the Islamic world The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order is still worth a long look for students of international relations.